Tuesday, August 16, 2005



Wednesday, July 27, 2005

  1. Lose weight if you are overweight

    Taking Action To Control High Blood Pressure
    Having high blood pressure means that you must make some changes in your life. You’ll need to do some or all of the following:
  • Lose weight if you’re overweight
  • Be physically active
  • Choose foods low in salt and sodium
  • Limit your alcohol intake
  • Take your high blood pressure pills.
  • You don’t have to try to make all of the changes necessary right off the bat. The key is to focus on one or two at a time. Once they become part of your normal routine, you can go on to the next change. Sometimes one change leads naturally to another. For example, increasing physical activity will help you lose weight.

The first four steps can also help prevent many people from developing high blood pressure. So you can follow them with your family to keep everyone healthy

Check Your Weight

Ideal Body Weight, Based on Body Mass Index(all weight are in Ibs)

Ideal Body Weight Charts
For Men 25-59 years of age.

Height in (Feet&Inches) Small Frame Medium Frame Large Frame
5'2" 128-134 131-141 138-150
5'3" 130-136 133-143 140-153
5'4" 132-138 135-145 142-156
5'5" 134-140 137-148 144-160
5'6" 136-142 139-151 146-164
5'7" 138-145 142-154 149-168
5'8" 140-148 145-157 152-172
5'9" 142-151 151-163 155-176
5'10" 144-154 151-163 158-180
5'11" 146-157 154-166 161-184
6'0" 149-160 157-170 164-188
6'1" 152-164 160-174 168-192
6'2" 155-168 165-178 172-197
6'3" 158-172 167-182 176-202
6'4" 162-176 171-187 181-207

(to convert Ibs to Kg Devide by 2.2, bcoz 1 kg =2.2Ibs)


If you have always wondered what size frame you are, here is the method the insurance company used. This will be easier with the help of a friend.

  1. Extend your arm in front of your body bending your elbow at a ninety degree angle to your body. (your arm is parallel to your body).
  2. Keep your fingers straight and turn the inside of your wrist to your body.
  3. Place your thumb and index finger on the two prominent bones on either side of your elbow, measure the distance between the bones with a tape measure or calipers.
  4. Compare to the medium-framed chart below. Select your height based on what you are barefoot. If you are below the listed inches, your frame is small. If you are above, your frame is large.

Height in 1" heels Elbow Height in 1" heels Elbow
Men Breadth Women Breadth
5'2"-5'3" 21/2"-27/8" 4'10"-4'11" 21/4"-21/2"
5'4"-5'7" 25/8"-27/8" 5'0"-5'3" 21/4"-21/2"
5'8"-5'11" 23/4"-3" 5'4"-5'7" 23/8"-25/8"
6'0"-6'3" 23/4"-31/8" 5'8"-5'11" 23/8"-25/8"
6'4" 27/8"-31/4" 6'0" 21/2"-23/4"

Another Method For Calculating Body Mass

Body Mass Index

Our ideal weight range charts are based on body mass index, modified to take into account whether you are male or female.

Body mass index is used to determine whether an individual, male or female, falls into a broad band considered to be healthy weight, or is outside the parameters and, if so, to what extent. BMI is used by scientist and researchers to determine the health implications of being a certain BMI.

Body mass index, BMI, is a number generated by dividing your weight in kilograms by your height in metres squared.

Body mass index (BMI)=weight(kg)/height(m)2

BMI category
below 20 — underweight
20-25 — normal
25-30 — overweight
over 30 — obese

Monday, July 18, 2005


What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism—the way our bodies use digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food we eat is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body.

After digestion, glucose passes into the bloodstream, where it is used by cells for growth and energy. For glucose to get into cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach.

When we eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into our cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of glucose.

How do you get Diabetes?
There are two main types of diabetes mellitus. These are known as type 1 and type 2.
  1. Type 1 diabetes mellitus used to be called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, or juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus, because it usually begins in childhood or adolescence.
  2. In type 1 diabetes mellitus, the pancreas releases no insulin at all because the body has destroyed the cells that produce it (islet cells). The patient therefore relies on treatment with insulin.
  3. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common form of diabetes. It used to be called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, or adult onset diabetes because it usually begins in adulthood.
  4. In type 2 diabetes, patients can still produce insulin, but they do not produce enough and/or their bodies cannot use it properly.
    Another form of diabetes, known as gestational diabetes, occurs in some women during pregnancy. It is a temporary condition caused by pregnancy and usually occurs in the later stages, once the baby has formed but is still growing.

Diabetes is a permanent change in your internal chemistry that results in having too much sugar, or glucose in your blood. Without treatment, your blood sugar remains high and has the potential of affecting every organ and system in your body.

Symptoms of diabetes:

  • Thirst
  • Dehydration
  • Passing large amounts of urine
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Blurry vision

There are several causes of diabetes.

A person could be affected by one or more of them.

  • Heredity is an important factor in diabetes. It is difficult to predict who will inherit the condition. Families with a strong tendency towards diabetes should know the symptoms of diabetes and take precautions to lower the other risk factors.
  • Overweight
  • Unbalanced diet
  • Stress
  • Infections
    Diseases of the pancreasDiabetes is usually diagnosed from simple urine or blood test. With treatment, the insulin problem can be solved, and your blood sugar can be brought down or normalized so that the body is not damaged. A person with diabetes can remain healthy and look forward to a normal life span.

How long does Diabetes last?

Diabetes Mellitus is a life-long, chronic condition.

Type 1 diabetes usually begins in childhood or adolescence. The symptoms tend to occur suddenly after the onset of the disease and are usually more obvious than those of type 2.

Type 2 diabetes usually begins in adulthood (mainly after 40 years of age). It develops gradually in most cases and may be present for several years before it is detected.
Gestational diabetes is a temporary condition that may occur during pregnancy and usually goes away after the baby is born.

What are the tests for diagnosing diabetes?

The fasting plasma glucose test is the preferred test for diagnosing type 1 or type 2 diabetes. It is most reliable when done in the morning. However, a diagnosis of diabetes can be made after positive results on any one of three tests, with confirmation from a second positive test on a different day:
  • A random (taken any time of day) plasma glucose value of 200 mg/dL or more, along with the presence of diabetes symptoms.
  • A plasma glucose value of 126 mg/dL or more after a person has fasted for 8 hours.
  • An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) plasma glucose value of 200 mg/dL or more in a blood sample taken 2 hours after a person has consumed a drink containing 75 grams of glucose dissolved in water. This test, taken in a laboratory or the doctor's office, measures plasma glucose at timed intervals over a 3-hour period.

Gestational diabetes is diagnosed based on plasma glucose values measured during the OGTT. Glucose levels are normally lower during pregnancy, so the threshold values for diagnosis of diabetes in pregnancy are lower. If a woman has two plasma glucose values meeting or exceeding any of the following numbers, she has gestational diabetes: a fasting plasma glucose level of 95 mg/dL, a 1-hour level of 180 mg/dL, a 2-hour level of 155 mg/dL, or a 3-hour level of 140 mg/dL.

How is diabetes managed?

Before the discovery of insulin in 1921, everyone with type 1 diabetes died within a few years after diagnosis. Although insulin is not considered a cure, its discovery was the first major breakthrough in diabetes treatment.

Today, healthy eating, physical activity, and taking insulin via injection or an insulin pump are the basic therapies for type 1 diabetes. The amount of insulin must be balanced with food intake and daily activities. Blood glucose levels must be closely monitored through frequent blood glucose checking.

Healthy eating, physical activity, and blood glucose testing are the basic management tools for type 2 diabetes. In addition, many people with type 2 diabetes require oral medication, insulin, or both to control their blood glucose levels.

People with diabetes must take responsibility for their day-to-day care. Much of the daily care involves keeping blood glucose levels from going too low or too high. When blood glucose levels drop too low—a condition known as hypoglycemia—a person can become nervous, shaky, and confused. Judgment can be impaired, and if blood glucose falls too low, fainting can occur.
A person can also become ill if blood glucose levels rise too high, a condition known as hyperglycemia.

People with diabetes should see a health care provider who will help them learn to manage their diabetes and who will monitor their diabetes control. An endocrinologist is a doctor who often specializes in diabetes care. In addition, people with diabetes often see ophthalmologists for eye examinations, podiatrists for routine foot care, and dietitians and diabetes educators to learn the skills needed for day-to-day diabetes management.

The goal of diabetes management is to keep blood glucose levels as close to the normal range as safely possible. A major study, the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), showed that keeping blood glucose levels close to normal reduces the risk of developing major complications of type 1 diabetes.

This 10-year study, completed in 1993, included 1,441 people with type 1 diabetes. The study compared the effect of two treatment approaches—intensive management and standard management—on the development and progression of eye, kidney, and nerve complications of diabetes. Intensive treatment aimed to keep hemoglobin A1C as close to normal (6 percent) as possible. Hemoglobin A1C reflects average blood glucose over a 2- to 3-month period. Researchers found that study participants who maintained lower levels of blood glucose through intensive management had significantly lower rates of these complications. More recently, a followup study of DCCT participants showed that the ability of intensive control to lower the complications of diabetes has persisted 8 years after the trial ended.

The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study, a European study completed in 1998, showed that intensive control of blood glucose and blood pressure reduced the risk of blindness, kidney disease, stroke, and heart attack in people with type 2 diabetes.

How is Diabetes treated?

Treatment is aimed at controlling the elevated blood glucose without causing an abnormally low glucose level (hypoglycaemia). An important aspect of your treatment plan will involve eating a healthy diet (low fat, salt and sugar and high fibre). You should also monitor your blood glucose levels.

  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus is treated with insulin, exercise, and a healthy diet.
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus is first treated with weight reduction, a healthy diet and regular exercise.
  • In type 2 diabetes, if the above measures fail to control the elevated blood glucose, oral (by mouth) medicines are used to try to boost insulin production, improve the body’s use of it, or reduce the speed at which glucose enters the blood. Treatment with insulin will be considered if these other medicines are insufficient.
  • Gestational diabetes is usually controlled by a healthy diet and regular exercise. Some women may require treatment with insulin.

Treating high blood pressure and controlling the levels of fats (lipids) in the blood are also very important in patients with diabetes as they are at greater risk than the normal population of developing serious cardiovascular diseases.

A group of medicines known as ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) inhibitors are sometimes used to reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular complications in diabetes and can also reduce the risk or progression of kidney and eye diseases.
Although there is currently no cure for diabetes mellitus, it can be controlled successfully with an active treatment plan. The potential benefit of pancreas transplants and islet cell transplants in type 1 patients is being investigated

What is heart failure?

What is heart failure?

Heart Failure is a condition initiated by impairment of the heart's function as a pump!

Heart failure is a progressive disorder in which damage to the heart causes weakening of the cardiovascular system. It is clinically manifested by fluid congestion or inadequate blood flow to tissues. Heart failure progresses by inappropriate responses of the body to heart injury.

Heart failure may be the sum of one or many causes. It is a progressive disorder that must be managed in regard to not only the state of the heart, but the condition of the circulation, lungs, neuroendocrine system and other organs as well. Furthermore, when other conditions are present (e.g. kidney dysfunction, hypertension, vascular disease, or diabetes) it can be more of a problem. Finally, the impact it can have on a patient psychologically and socially are important as well.

Heart failure is a cumulative consequence of all insults to the heart over someone's life. It is estimated that nearly 5 million Americans have heart failure. The prevalence of heart failure approximately DOUBLES with each decade of life. As people live longer, the occurence of heart failure rises, as well as other conditions that complicate its treatment. Even when symptoms are absent or controlled, impaired heart function implies a reduced duration of survival. Fortunately, many factors that can prevent heart failure and improve outcome are known and can be applied at any stage.

The following details the hallmarks of heart failure:

Fluid Congestion

If the heart becomes less efficient as a pump, the body will try to compensate for it. One way it attempts to do this is by using hormones and neural signals to increase blood volume (by water retention in the kidneys). A drop in blood flow to the kidneys will also lead to fluid retention. Blood and fluid pressure backed up behind the heart result in excess salt water entering the lungs and other body tissues. However, it is important to note that not all swelling due to fluid retention is a reflection of heart failure.

Clinical symptoms due to fluid congestion:

  • shortness of breath
  • edema (pooling of fluid in lungs and body)

Reduced Blood Flow to the Body

The heart's inability to pump blood to the muscles and organs isn't always apparent in early stages of heart failure. Often times, it is unmasked only during increases in physical activity. In advanced heart failure, many tissues and organs may not even receive the oxygen they require for functioning at rest.

Clinical symptoms due to poor blood flow to the body:

  • difficulty exercising
  • fatigue
  • dizziness (due to low blood pressure)

The symptoms and physical changes of heart failure have several different classifications based on their location and mechanism. The definitions below summarizes these states:


there are different classifications of heart failure:

  1. Right Heart Failure - The inability of the right side of the heart to adequately pump venous blood into the pulmonary circulation. This causes a back-up of fluid in the body, resulting in swelling and edema.
  2. Left Heart Failure - The inability of the left side of the heart to pump into the systemic circulation.Back-up behind the left-ventricle causes accumulation of fluid in the lungs.

As a result of those failures, symptoms can be due to:

  1. Forward Heart Failure - The inability of the heart to pump blood at a sufficient rate to meet the oxygen demands of the body at rest or at exercise.
  2. Backward Heart Failure - The ability of the heart to pump blood at a sufficient rate ONLY when heart filling pressures are abnormally high.
  3. Congestive Heart Failure - Fluid in the lungs or body, resulting from inadequate pumping from the heart.

High blood pressure

What is High Blood Pressure?

High blood pressure, sometimes called hypertension, means high pressure (tension) in the arteries. It does not mean excess emotional stress, though doctors’ believe that stress might contribute to high blood pressure over a longer period of time

Your blood pressure rises and falls with each heartbeat, even normal blood pressure does this. These levels can change with everyday activity, for example, during exercise or when you are asleep and this is also normal. However, in some people, and as we get older, these changes in blood pressure start to happen at higher pressure levels than normal and this is what high blood pressure means.

  • Your blood pressure is usually measured with a blood pressure cuff placed around the upper arm that registers the pressure in units called millimetres of mercury (or mm Hg).
  • Your blood pressure is usually considered to be high when it is at a level exceeding 140/90 mm Hg (“140 over 90”) on several readings under various conditions. However, defining normal and abnormal is not always so clear-cut and your doctor or healthcare professional will make the necessary recommendations.
  • Blood pressure rises and falls with each heartbeat. Systolic blood pressure, the higher number, represents the pressure in the arteries as the heart contracts and sends blood into the circulation. Diastolic pressure, the lower number, occurs as the heart relaxes following a beat. It represents the lowest pressure to which the arteries are exposed between heartbeats.

How do you get High Blood Pressure?

No specific cause is found in 95% of patients with hypertension – this is called primary hypertension or sometimes essential hypertension

  • Most patients have primary, or essential hypertension. Most cases of primary hypertension are due to increased stiffness and narrowing of the smaller (peripheral) arteries.
  • This results in increased resistance to the flow of blood and is what makes the blood pressure go up.
  • Increased peripheral artery resistance is associated with genetics (family history), obesity, lack of exercise, over use of salt, and the natural ageing process.
  • A few patients have high blood pressure with a known cause (secondary hypertension). Long-lasting (chronic) kidney disease accounts for most of these patients where there is excessive fluid accumulation in the body that raises blood pressure. Hypertension can also occur during some pregnancies.

How serious is High Blood Pressure?

It is rare these days for blood pressure to be so high as to pose an immediate threat to life. In almost all cases, the problem with blood pressure is that over time it can cause damage to the tiny blood vessels and this may affect the function of the heart, eyes, and kidney. Again, over time it can affect the larger arteries as well and contribute to hardening of the arteries. This explains why people with untreated high blood pressure have a higher risk of suffering from a stroke, heart attack, heart failure, hardening of the arteries, eye and kidney problems.

For this reason it is important that treatment with a blood pressure lowering medicine is given for a long period of time, which in most cases is for life.

And, because blood pressure tends to go up as you get older anyway, it means we should have our blood pressure checked regularly, even if our blood pressure is ‘normal’.

How long does High Blood Pressure last?

High blood pressure may be present for several years before it is detected and is often found during a routine check-up, for example, for insurance purposes. Usually there are no symptoms and consequences may only become apparent after many years.

How is High Blood Pressure treated?

Doctors know that there is a benefit from treating high blood pressure at any age, even in older patients of 65 years and over. Depending on the level of the blood pressure, different things are recommended. In some people with only mild elevations in blood pressure a change in diet and adopting a more healthy lifestyle may reduce the blood pressure to normal. Your healthcare professional will provide you with the right diet for you. Its not just lowering the amount of salt you eat, although this is important: there are other things you can change in your diet that can help. Also, if you are overweight, getting slimmer may help.

If necessary, high blood pressure can be treated with a range of different medicines, including:

  • Beta-blockers, which make the heart beat more slowly and less strongly. They work by blocking the action of nerves supplying the heart that release a chemical called noradrenaline. This helps to control the rhythm and force of heart muscle movement. They also block a hormone called adrenaline (a chemical carried in the blood) which is similar to noradrenaline.
  • Diuretics, which work in the kidneys to make you pass urine more often and get rid of excess fluid.
  • Calcium-channel blockers, which relax arterial blood vessels making them less narrow. These lower the resistance to blood flow, allowing blood to flow more easily. They work by preventing calcium from entering the muscles in blood vessels because calcium is important in narrowing down blood vessels.
  • ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II antagonists, which in general relax the blood vessels. They do this by preventing a hormone called angiotensin II from working, either by preventing its production or blocking its action. Like other hormones, angiotensin II is an active chemical signal in the blood. It controls the function of many organs or systems including the narrowing of blood vessels and prevents the kidneys from getting rid of excess fluid. Doctors believe that angiotensin II is involved as one of the causes of high blood pressure

It is also important to follow any lifestyle instructions that your doctor has given to you, like trying to give up smoking, reducing your weight, doing more exercise and eating a healthy diet. When these and other risk factors are present together with high blood pressure, then this means there is even higher risk of serious disease. It is also important to continue taking any medications you have been given, even if you feel normal.